eSignature Legality SummaryeSignatures are legally valid and admissible in the court of law. Vietnam follows a hierarchical root of trust model where eSignatures or digital signatures issued by a Certifying Authority are considered legally valid. Specific use cases for eSignatures are indicated in the ET Act.
Vietnamese law highlights that a handwritten signature isn’t always needed for a contract to be considered credible, and that contracts can’t be refused for simply being electronic. They’ll usually be seen as such as long as legally able individuals have reached an agreement. This can be by verbally agreeing, electronically or physically signing something (Civil Code, Article 124). And The Electronic Commerce Act 2006 states that electronic contracts can’t be dismissed for being electronic.
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Use Cases for eSignatures ?
Use cases where an SES is typically appropriate include:
- Speedy HR document preparation with preapproved templates, easy update of each employee, new employee onboarding processes as well as 360 degree view of employee files.
- End user agreements including sales & service terms, new retail account opening documents, invoices, shipment details, user manual, EULAs, policies
- Formal contracts including service agreements
Use Cases for Qualified Signatures ?
Use cases where an AES is typically appropriate include:
- Purchase, procurement and commercial agreements including invoices, trade and payment terms, certificates, NDAs, sales & distribution agreements, order acknowledgements.
- Real estate lease agreements for residential and commercial purpose
Use Cases that are not appropriate for Electronic Signatures
Use cases that are specifically barred from digital or electronic processes or that include explicit requirements, such as handwritten (e.g. wet ink) signatures or formal notarial process that are not usually compatible with electronic signatures or digital transaction management.
- Handwritten - contracts related to real property transfer
- Handwritten - intangible property transfers
- Handwritten - transfer of movable assets
List of Local Trust Service Providers
|Institute||Regulatory Body/CA/DSC Providers||Supported by emSigner||Website|
|The National Electronic Authentication Centre (NEAC) under the Ministry of Information and Communications||Root Digital Certificate Authentication||Yes||https://www.dti.gov.ph/|
|Viet Nam Certificate Authority and Digital Transaction Club (VCDC)||Consists of seven founding members -- Bkav-CA, Viettel-CA, VNPT-CA, FPT-CA, Nacencomm (CA2), Vina Signature (Smart-Sight) and NewCA||Yes|
|Vina Signature (Smart-Sight)||CA||Yes|
“Digital Signature” means a transformation of a message using an asymmetric cryptosystem such that a person having the initial message and the signer’s public key can accurately determine
(a) whether the transformation was created using the private key that corresponds to the signer’s public key;
(b) whether the message has been altered since the transformation was made
 An AES is an “advanced electronic signature”, a type of electronic signature that meets the following requirements:
(a) it is uniquely linked to the signatory;
(b) it is capable of identifying the signatory;
(c) it is created using means that are under the signatory’s sole control;
(d) it is linked to other electronic data in such a way that any alteration to the said data can be detected.
 A QES is a specific digital signature implementation that has met the particular specifications of a government, including using a secure signature creation device, and been certified as ‘qualified’ by either that government or a party contracted by that government.
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